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Courses


Available courses

This course consists of basics and significance of a Balance Sheet, 'What does it tell about a business?' How it is prepared, its different sections, various kinds of assets and liabilities, their meaning, analysis of a balance sheet, along with illustrations in MS Excel, how to compute different ratios from Balance Sheet etc.,

This course equips the participant to understand the significance of a Cash Flow Statement, what are its Component Sections, How they are prepared, how to analyse it, its Utility in decision making by managers and how useful they are in making investment decisions by existing and prospective investors and how the cash flow statement forms as one of the bases for valuing a business entity.

The course consists of 20 Modules as below.

  1. Introduction to Financial Accounting and Reporting
  2. GAAP – The pillars and forces influencing ‘Financial Accounting and Reporting’
  3. Financial Statements – Introduction, Meaning, Structure, and Demystification of major Elements of Financial Statements 
  4. Financial Accounting and Reporting – Process, Structure and Governance
  5. Financial Reporting Standards - Overview and Comparative Study
  6. Recording Business Transactions in Primary Books
  7. Recording of Business Transactions in Principal Books
  8. Preparation of Trial Balance and Rectification of Errors
  9. Accounting for Non - Current Assets
  10. Accounting for and Valuation of Inventories
  11. Accounting Information Systems – The Physical and Virtual Infrastructure
  12. Prelude to Preparation of Financial Statements
  13. Preparation of Financial Statements - Income Statement (or Profit and Loss a/c)
  14. Preparation of Financial Statements – Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet) and Statement of Changes in Equity
  15. Preparation of Financial Statements - Funds Flow and Cash Flow Statements
  16. Preparation of Financial Statements in Special Situations
  17. Accounting for Direct and Indirect Taxes
  18. Fair Value Accounting
  19. Financial Statements Analysis and Introduction to Financial Modeling
  20. Application of Microsoft Excel and VBA for Excel in Financial Accounting and Financial Modeling


    Course Overview

    This Course on Preparation of Operational and Financial Models for Hospitality Industry consists of the following Modules

    1. Financial Statements  -Preparation, Analysis and Planning
    2. MIS Statements in a typical hospitality industry unit
    3. Preparation of Budgets
    4. Application of Advanced MS Excel and VBA
    5. Financial Modelling Concepts and Methodology
    6. Preparation of Operational and Financial Models

    The course which spreads into 300 hours involves lectures and / or  self pace learning, recorded lectures, illustration of application of MS Excel and VBA, Assignments, Quizzes,  Project Work and end course assessment.

The course which spreads into 300 hours involves lectures and / or  self pace learning, illustration of application of MS Excel and VBA, Assignments, Quizzes,  Project Work and end course assessment.


Course Overview

This course empowers and equips small and retail investors in Stocks, Shares and other Securities of companies with the knowledge required to read various sections of the Annual Reports of companies and make informed investment decisions. This course consists of the following sections.

  1. Sections of Annual / Periodical Reports
  2. Financial Reporting Framework
  3. Financial Statements Analysis and Company's Guidance
  4. Relative Financial Statements Analysis and Investment Decisions

The course which spreads into 100 hours involves lectures and / or  self pace learning, illustration of application of MS Excel and VBA, Assignments, Quizzes,  Project Work and end course assessment.


 

Course Overview

Certificate Course in Financial Modelling consists of three modules.

  1. Financial statements preparation, financial statements analysis and planning
  2. Application of Advanced Excel in Financial statements preparation, financial statements analysis and planning
  3. Financial Modelling Methodology
  4. Preparation of Financial Models in MS Excel and VBA 

The course which spreads into 100 hours involves lectures and / or  self pace learning, illustration of application of MS Excel and VBA, Assignments, Quizzes,  Project Work and end course assessment.

This course discusses with the basic concepts of recording of financial information in books of accounts . The course also discusses about the application of Dual aspect concept and Accounting Equation in detail.

In this course we will be discussing about the bases of measurement that are applied for recording and presentation of financial information. It must be noted that the accounting bases of measurement are not the same as the bases of measurement we will be discussing in the context of financial modelling and valuation, though some of the measurement concepts are the same.

This course discusses with the basic concepts of recording of financial information in books of accounts . The course also discusses about the application of Dual aspect concept and Accounting Equation in detail.

Syllabus

Objective

To develop an understanding of the basic concepts and principles of Accounting and apply the same in preparing financial statements and simple problem solving.

Contents:

1. Theoretical framework

i. Meaning and Scope of accounting

ii. Accounting Concepts, Principles and Conventions

iii. Accounting terminology - Glossary

iv. Capital and revenue expenditure, Capital and revenue receipts, Contingent assets and contingent liabilities

v. Accounting policies

vi. Accounting as a Measurement Discipline - Valuation Principles, Accounting Estimates

vii. Accounting Standards - Concepts and Objectives

viii. Indian Accounting Standards - Concepts and Objectives

2. Accounting Process

i. Books of Accounts

ii. Preparation of Trial Balance

iii. Rectification of Errors

3. Bank Reconciliation Statement

Introduction, reasons, preparation of bank reconciliation statement.

4. Inventories

Cost of Inventory, Net realizable value, Basis and technique of inventory valuation and record keeping

5. Concept and Accounting of Depreciation

Concepts, Methods of Computation and accounting treatment of depreciation, Change in depreciation methods

6. Accounting for Special transactions
i. Bills of Exchange and promissory notes

Meaning of Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes and their Accounting Treatment; Accommodation bills

ii. Sale of Goods on approval or return basis

Meaning of goods sent on approval or return basis and accounting treatment

iii. Consignments

Meaning and features of consignment business, differences between sale and consignment, Accounting treatments for consignment transactions and events in the books of consignor and consignee.

iv. Average due date

Meaning, Calculation of average due date in various situations

v. Account current

Meaning of Account Current, Methods of preparing Account Current

7. Final Accounts of Sole Proprietors

Elements of financial statements, closing adjustment entries, trading account, profit and loss account and balance sheet of manufacturing and non-manufacturing entities

8. Partnership Accounts

i. Final Accounts of partnership firms

ii. Admission, Retirement, and Death of a partner including treatment of goodwill.

iii. Introduction to LLPs and distinction of LLPs from partnerships.

9. Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations

Significance of Receipt and Payment Account, Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet, Differences between Profit and Loss account and Income and expenditure account, Preparation of Receipt and Payment Account, Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet.

10. Introduction to Company Accounts

i. Definition of shares and debentures

ii. Issue of shares and debentures, forfeiture of shares, re-issue of forfeited shares

iii. Statement of profit and loss and balance sheet as per Schedule III to the Companies Act 2013.


This quiz is on the Preliminary Topics of Corporate and Other Laws. The quiz helps the Student to effectively prepare as far as this topic is concerned.

This quiz is based on Disclosure of Accounting Policies based on AS 1 of the Intermediate Course - Advanced Accounting


This course equips the students with the ability and strength to score high in the subject of Advanced Accounting of the Intermediate Course of the ICAI. The course consists of the following topics.

  • Introduction to Accounting Standards
  • Framework for Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements
  • Applicability of Accounting Standards
  • Presentation and Disclosures Based Accounting Standards
    • AS 1 - Disclosure of Accounting Policies
    • AS 3 Cash Flow Statement
    • AS 17 Segment Reporting
    • AS 18 Related Party Disclosures
    • AS 20 Earnings Per Share
    • AS 24 Discontinuing Operations
    • AS 25 Interim Financial Reporting
  • Assets Based Accounting Standards
    • AS 2 Valuation of Inventory
    • AS 10 Property, Plant and Equipment
    • AS 13 Accounting for Investments
    • AS 16 Borrowing Costs
    • AS 19 Leases
    • AS 26 Intangible Assets
    • AS 28 Impairment of Assets
  • Liabilities Based Accounting Standards
    • AS 15 Employee Benefits
    • AS 29 (Revised) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
  • Accounting Standards based on Items Impacting Financial Statement
    • AS 4 Contingencies and Events occurring after the Balance Sheet Date
    • AS 5 Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies
    • AS 11 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates
    • AS 22 Accounting for Taxes on Income
  • Revenue Based Accounting Standards
    • AS 7 Construction Contracts
    • AS9 Revenue Recognition
  • Other Accounting Standards
    • AS 12 Accounting for Government Grants
    • AS 14 Accounting for Amalgamations
  • Accounting Standards for Consolidated Financial Statement
    • AS 21 Consolidated Financial Statements
    • AS 23 Accounting for Investments in Consolidated Financial Statements
    • AS 27 Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures
  • Financial Statements of Companies
    • Preparation of Financial Statements
      • Cash Flow Statement
      • Annexure
    • Buyback of Securities
    • Amalgamation of Companies
    • Accounting for Reconstruction Companies
    • Accounting for Branches including Foreign Branches

 


Syllabus

Objective

Contents

1. Financial Management and Financial Analysis

i. Introduction to Financial Management Function

a. Objective and scope of financial management

b. Role and purpose

c. Financial management environment

d. Functions of finance executives in an organization

e. Financial distress and insolvency

ii. Financial Analysis through Ratios

a. Users of the financial analysis

b. Sources of financial data for analysis

c. Calculation and interpretation of ratios:

 -Analysing liquidity

- Analysing leverage

- Analysing solvency

- Analysing efficiency / activity

- Analysing profitability

d. Limitations of ratio analysis

2. Financing Decisions

i. Sources of Finance

 a. Different sources of Finance, Characteristics of different types of long term debt and equity finance, method of raising long term finance

b. Different Sources of short term finance

c. Internal fund as a source of finance

d. International sources of finance

e. Other sources of finance- Sale and lease back, Convertible debt, Venture capital, Grants etc.,

ii. Cost of Capital

a. Significance of cost of capital

b. Factors of cost of capital

c. Measurement of costs of individual components of capital

d. Weighted average cost of capital (WACC)

e. Marginal cost of capital

f. Effective interest rate

iii. Capital Structure Decisions

a. Significance of capital structure

b. Determinants of capital structure

c. Capital structure planning and designing

d. Designing optimum capital structure

e. Theories of Capital Structures and value of the firm - relevancy and irrelevancy of capital structure

f. EBIT-EPS Analysis, Breakeven - EBIT Analysis 

g. Under / Over Capitalisation

iv. Leverages

a. Types of Leverages - Operating, Financial and Combined

b. Analysis of Leverages

3. Capital Investment and Dividend Decisions

i. Capital Investment Decisions

a. Objectives of Capital Investment decisions

b. Methods of Investment appraisal

 -Payback period, Discounted payback period

-Accounting Rate of return (ARR)

- Net Present Value (NPV)- The meaning of NPV, Strengths and limitations of NPV method, The working capital adjustment in NPV Analysis, Capital Rationing, Equivalent Annual Costs

- Internal Rate of Return (IRR) - Limitations of the IRR Method, Multiple IRRs

- Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR) - Definition and Exploitation of MIRR, The process for calculating MIRR, Strengths of the MIRR Approach

- Profitability Index

ii. Adjustment of Risk and Uncertainty in Capital Budgeting Decision

a. Probability Analysis

b. Certainty Equivalent Method

c. Risk Adjusted Discount Rate

d. Scenario Analysis

e. Sensitivity Analysis

iii. Dividend Decisions

a. Basics of Dividends

b. Forms of Dividend

c. determinants of Dividend

d. Relevancy and irrelevancy of Dividend policies - Traditional approach, Walter's model, Gordon's Model, Modigliani and Miller Hypothesis

4. Management of Working Capital

a. The management of working capital - Liquidity and Profitability

b. The working capital financing decisions - Primary and Secondary Sources of Liquidity

c. The working capital cycle (operating cycle) Effectiveness of working capital based on its operating and cash conversion cycles

d. Assessment of working capital requirement

e. Management of Accounts receivables

f. Factoring and forfaiting

g. Management of Accounts payables

h. Management of Inventory

i. Management of Cash, Treasury management

j. Banking norms of working capital finance



Objective

1. To acquire the ability to apply specific Accounting Standards and legislations to different transactions and events and in preparation and presentation of financial statements of business entities

2. To understand and apply financial reporting and regulatory requirements of Banking Companies and NBFCs.

Contents

1. Application of Accounting Standards

AS 4: Contingencies and Events occurring after the Balance Sheet Date

AS 5: Net Profit or Loss for the period, Prior period items and changes in Accounting Policies

AS 7: Construction Contracts

AS 9: Revenue Recognition

AS 14: Accounting for Amalgamations

AS 17: Segment Reporting

AS 18: Related Party Disclosures

AS 19: Leases

AS 20: Earnings per share

AS 22: Accounting for Taxes on Income

AS 24: Discontinuing Operations

AS 26: Intangible Assets

AS 29: Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

2. Special Aspects of company accounts

(i) Accounting for employee stock option plans

(ii) Buy back of securities

(iii) Equity shares with differential rights

3. Reorganization and liquidation of companies

(i) Accounting for amalgamation (excluding inter-company holding) and reconstruction

(ii) Accounting involved in liquidation of companies

4. Banking companies and Non-Banking Financial companies and regulatory requirements thereof
5. Consolidated Financial Statements

Concept of consolidation and simple problems on Consolidated Financial Statements with single subsidiary (excluding problems involving acquisition of interest in subsidiary at different dates; Different reporting Dates of Holding and Subsidiary; Disposal of a subsidiary and foreign subsidiaries.)

6. Dissolution of partnership firms including piecemeal distribution of assets; Amalgamation of partnership firms; Conversion of partnership firm into a company and sale to a company; Issues related to accounting in Limited Liability Partnership.

Objective

1. To develop an understanding of the basic concepts and applications to establish the cost associated with the production of products and provision of services and apply he same to determine prices.

2. To develop an understanding of cost accounting statements

3. To acquire the ability to apply information for cost ascertainment, planning, control and decision making

Contents

1. Overview of Cost and Management Accounting

i. Introduction to Cost and Management Accounting

a. Objectives and scope of Cost and Management Accounting

b. The users of Cost and Management accounting information and Functions of Management Accounting

c. Role of cost accounting department in an organization and its relation with other departments

d. Installation of costing system

e. Relationship of Cost Accounting, Financial Accounting, Management Accounting and Financial Management

f. Cost terms and concepts

g. Cost reduction and cost control

h. Elements of Costs

i. Cost behavior pattern, Separating the components of fixed, variable, semi-variable and step costs.

j. Methods of costing, techniques of costing

k. Cost Accounting with use of Information technology

ii. Elements of Cost and preparation of Cost Sheets

a. Functional classification and ascertainment of costs

b. Preparation of Cost Sheets for Manufacturing sector and for Service sector.

2. Ascertainment of Costs and Cost Accounting System

i. Material Cost

a. Procurement procedures - Store procedures and documentation in respect of receipts and issue of Stock, Stock verification

b. Valuation of material receipts

c. Inventory control

-Techniques of fixing levels of stocks 0 minimum, maximum, re-order point, safety stock, determination of optimum stock levels

- Determination of Optimum Order Quantity- Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

- Techniques of Inventory Control - ABC Analysis, Fast, Slow moving and non moving (FSN), High, Medium, Low (HML), Vital, Essential, Desirable (VED), Justin[Time (JIT)- Stock taking and perpetual inventory system, use of control ratios.

d. Inventory Accounting

ii. Employee Cost

a. Attendance and payroll procedures

- Elements of wages - basic pay, Dearness Allowance, Overtime, Bonus, Holiday and leave wages, Allowances and perquisites.

b. Employee cost control

c. Employee Turn over- Methods of calculating employee turn over, causes of employee turn over, effects of employee turn over.

d. Utilisation of Human resource, Direct and Indirect Employee cost, Charging of Employee Cost, Identifying employee hours with work orders or batches or capital jobs.

e. Remuneration Systems and incentive schemes

- Premium Bonus Method (Halsey Plan and Rowan Plan)

iii. Overheads

a. Functional analysis - factory, Administration, Selling, Distribution, Research and Development

b. Behavioural analysis - Fixed, Variable and Semi-Variable

c. Allocation and Apportionment of Overheads using Absorption Method

d. Factory  Overheads - Primary and Secondary Distribution

e. Administration Overheads - Method of allocation to cost centres or products

f. Selling & Distribution Overheads - Analysis and absorption of the expenses in products / customers, impact of marketing strategies, cost effectiveness of various methods of sales promotion.

g. Treatment of Research and Development cost in decision making.

iv. Concepts of Activity Based Costing (ABC)

v. Recording and Accounting of Costs

a. Non-integrated Cost Accounting System - Ledger under non-integral system

b. Integrated (Cost and Financial) Accounting System - Ledgers under Integral System

c. Differences between Non-integrated and Integrated Accounting System

d. Reconciliation of profit as per Cost and Financial Accounts (under Non-Integrated Accounting System)

3. Methods of Costing

i. Single Output / Unit Costing

ii. Job Costing

Job cost cards and databases, collecting direct costs of each job, attributing overheads to jobs, Application of Job Costing

iii. Batch Costing

Determination of optimum batch quantity, ascertainment of costs for a batch, preparation of batch cost sheet, treatment of spoiled and defective work

iv. Contract Costing

a. Ascertainment of cost of a contract, Progress payment, Retention money, Escalation clause, Cost plus contract, Value of work certified, Cost of work not certified.

b. Determination of Value of work certified, Cost of work not certified, Notional or Estimated profit from a contract.

v. Process / Operation costing

a. Process cost recording, Process loss, Abnormal gains and losses, Equivalent Units of Production, Inter-process profit, Valuation of Work in progress

b. Joint products- Apportionment of Joint Costs, Methods of apportioning joint cost over joint products

c. By-products- Methods of apportioning joint costs over by-products, treatment of By-product cost

v. Costing of Service Sectors

Determination of Costs and prices of services

4. Cost Control and Analysis

i. Standard Costing

a. Setting up of Standards, Types of Standards, Standard Costing as method of performance measurement. 

b. Calculation and Reconciliation of Cost Variances -Material Cost Variance, Employee cost variance, Variable and Fixed Overheads variances

ii. Marginal Costing

a. Basic concepts of Marginal costing, contribution margin, Break-Even Analysis, Break-even and profit volume charts, Contribution to Sales Rati, Margin of Safety, Angle of Incidence, Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis (CVP), Multi product break-even analysis, Consideration of Limiting Factor (Key factor)

b. Determination of Cost of a product / service under marginal costing, determination of cost of finished goods, work-in-progress

c. Comparison of Marginal costing with absorption costing method- Reconciliation of profit under both the methods

d. Short term decision making using the above concepts (basic / fundamental level)

iii. Budget and Budgetary Control

a. Meaning of Budget, Estimates of Budget, Budget Manual, Budget setting process, Preparation of Budgets and monitoring process

b. The use of Budget in planning and control

c. Flexible budget, Preparation of Functional budget for operating and non-operating functions, Cash budget, Master budget

d. Introduction to Principal / Key budget factor, Zero based budgeting (ZBB), Performance Budget, Control ratios and Budget variances.


Syllabus

Objective

To acquire the ability to apply specific Accounting Standards and legislations to different transactions and events and in preparation and presentation of Financial Statements of various business entities.

Contents

1. Process of formulation of Accounting Standards including Ind ASs (IFRS Converged Standards) and IFRSs.; convergence vs. adoption; objective and scope of carve outs.
2. Framework for Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements (as per Accounting Standards)
3. Application f Accounting Standards

AS 1  : Disclosure of Accounting Policies

AS 2  : Valuation of Inventories

AS 3  : Cash Flow Statements

AS 10: Property, Plant and Equipment

AS 11: The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates

AS 12: Accounting for Government Grants

AS 13: Accounting for Investments

AS 16: Borrowing Costs

4. Company Accounts

(i) Preparation of financial statements- Statement of Profit and Loss, Balance Sheet and Cash Flow Statement

(ii) Managerial Remuneration

(iii) Profit (Loss) prior to incorporation

(iv) Accounting for bonus issue and right issue

(v) Redemption of preference shares

(vi) Redemption of debentures

5. Accounting for Special Transactions

(i) Investment

(ii) Insurance claims for loss of stock and loss of profit

(iii) Hire-purchase and instalment sale transactions

5. Special type of accounting

(i) Departmental Accounting

(ii) Accounting for branches including foreign branches

(iii) Accounts from incomplete records

Syllabus

Objective

To analyze and integrate the concepts, principles and provisions of accounting, auditing, taxation, corporate laws, finance and business strategy and management to address issues in practical case scenarios.

Coverage

The paper will include case studies covering the the following areas.

1. Financial Accounting and Reporting
2. Audit and Assurance
3. Taxation
4. Finance and Financial Management
5. Management Accounting
6. Corporate Laws
7. Business Strategy and Management

Syllabus

Objective

a. To develop an understanding of the key concepts and principles of International financial reporting Standards and to acquire the ability to apply such knowledge to make computations and address issues in practical case scenarios

b. To develop and understanding of the significant differences between IFRS and US GAAP and apply them in practical case scenarios

Contents

1. Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting as per IFRS

2. Application of International Financial Reporting Standards

3. Significant differences between IFRS and US GAAPs


Objective

1. To apply various cost management techniques for planning and controlling performance in order to monitor and control strategic objectives

2. To develop skills of analysis, synthesis and evaluation in cost management to address challenges which might affect or influence the management of performance within organizations

Contents

Part A: Strategic Cost Management and Decision Making

Sub Part 1: Strategic Cost Management
1. Introduction to Strategic Cost Management

i. Concept of Strategic Cost Management

ii. Limitations of Traditional Cost Management

iii. Traditional vs. Strategic Cost Management

2. Modern Business Environment

i. Introduction / Characteristics of the Modern Business Environment

ii. Cost of Quality, Total Quality Management, Business Excellence Model

iii. Throughput Accounting and Theory of Constraints

iv. Supply Chain Management (SCM)

v. Gain Sharing Arrangements

vi. Outsourcing

3. Lean System and Innovation

i. Introduction to Lean System

a. Just-in-Time (JIT)

b. Kaizen Costing

c. 5Ss

d. Total Productive Management (TPM)

e. Cellular Manufacturing / One-Piece Flow Production Systems

f. Six Sigma (SS)

ii. Introduction to Process Innovation and Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)

4. Cost Management Techniques
i. Cost Control / Waste Control, Cost Reduction

ii. Target Costing

iii. Value Analysis and Value Engineering

iv. Pareto Analysis

v. Life Cycle Costing

vi. Environmental Management Accounting

5. Cost Management for Specific Sectors

i. Agricultural Sector

ii. Information Technology Sector

iii. Power Sector


Part B: Performance Evaluation and Control

Sub Part I: Performance Evaluation and Reporting

1. Performance Measurement and Evaluation
i. Responsibility Accounting
ii. Linking Critical Success Factors (CSFs) to key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Corporate Strategy; Performance Measurement Models - The Balanced Score Card, The Performance Pyramid; The Performance Prism and The Building Block Model; Divisional Performance Measures; Bench Marking Schemes
iii. Performance Measurement in the Not-for-Profit Sector
iv. Preparation of Performance Reports

2. Divisional Transfer Pricing

i. Meaning, Purpose and Principles of Transfer Pricing

ii. Methods of Transfer Pricing

iii. The Beahavioural Consequences arising from Divisional Structures

iv. International Transfer Pricing

3. Strategic Analysis of Operating Income

i. Operating Profit Analysis

ii. Advanced Activity Based Costing, Activity Based Management (ABM), Activity Based Budgeting (ABB) 

Sub Part II: Managerial Control

1. Budgetary Control

i. The Concept of Feedback and Forward Control

ii. Behavioural aspects of Budgeting - Imposed Style, Participative Budget

iii. Behavioural aspects of Budgetary Control 

iv. Beyond Budgeting

2. Standard Costing

i. Advanced Analysis of Variances

ii. Integration of Standard Costing with Marginal Cost Accounting

iii. Reconciliation of Profit

iv. Variance Investigation Techniques, Interpretation of Variances, Possible interdependence between variances and reporting

v. Behavioural aspects of Standard Costing, Limitations of Standard Costing (including its use in the contemporary environment)

Part C: Case Study

Case Study (covering Course Concepts)

General Note

Application of the following qualitative techniques are required to be studied to have linkage to course concept

a. Linear Programming

b. Learning Curve / Experience Curve



Syllabus

Objective

To acquire the ability to apply Financial Management theories and techniques in strategic decision making

Contents

1. Financial Policy and Corporate Strategy

i. Strategic decision making framework

ii. Interface of Financial Policy and strategic management

iii. Balancing financial goals vis-a-vis sustainable growth

2. Risk Management

i. Identification of types of risk faced by an organization

ii. Evaluation of Financial Risks

iii. Value at Risk (VAR)

iv. Evaluation of appropriate method for the identification and management of financial risk

3. Security Analysis

i. Fundamental Analysis

ii. Technical Analysis

a. Meaning

b. Assumptions

c. Theories and Principles

d. Charting Techniques

e. Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) Analysis

4. Security Valuation

i. Theory of Valuation

ii. Return Concepts

iii. Equity Risk Premium

iv. Required Return on Equity

v. Discount Rate Selection in Relation to Cash Flows

vi. Valuation of Preference Shares

vii. Valuation of Debentures / Bonds

5. Portfolio Management

i. Portfolio Analysis

ii. Portfolio Selection

iii. Capital Market Theory

iv. Portfolio Revision

v. Portfolio Evaluation

vi. Asset Allocation

viii. Fixed Income Portfolio

viii. Risk Analysis of Investment in Distressed Securities

ix. Alternative Investment Strategies in context of Portfolio Management

6. Securitization

i. Introduction

ii. Concept and Definition

iii. Benefits of Securitization

iv. Participants in Securitization

v. Mechanism of Securitization

vi. Problems in Securitization

vii. Securitization of Instruments 

viii. Pricing of Securitization Instruments

ix. Securitization in India

7. Mutual Funds

i. Meaning

ii. Evolution

iii. Types

iv. Advantages and Disadvantages of Mutual Funds


8. Derivatives Analysis and Valuation

i. Forward / Future Contract

ii. Options

iii. Swaps

iv. Commodity Derivatives

9. Foreign Exchange Exposure and Risk Management

i. Exchange rate determination

ii. Foreign currency market

iii. Management of transaction, translation and economic exposures

iv. Hedging currency risk

v. Foreign exchange derivatives - Forward, futures, options and swaps


10. International Financial Management
i. International Capital Budgeting

ii. International Working Capital Management

 a. Multinational cash management

 - Objectives of Effective cash management

 - Optimization of Cash Flows / Needs

 - Investment of Surplus Cash

b. Multinational Receivable Management

c. Multinational Inventory Management

11. Interest Rate Risk Management

i. Interest rate risk

ii. Hedging of interest rate risk

  a. Traditional Methods

  b. Modern Methods including Interest Rate Derivatives

12. Corporate Valuation

i. Conceptual Framework of Valuation

ii. Approaches / Methods of Valuation

  a. Assets Based Valuation Model

  b. Earnings based Models

c. Cash Flow based Models

d. Measuring Cost of Equity

   - Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

   - Arbitrate Pricing Theory

   - Estimating Beta of an unlisted company

e. Relative Valuation

  - Steps involved in Relative Valuation

  - Equity Valuation Multiples

  - Enterprise Valuation Multiples

f. Other approaches to Value Measurement

  -Economic Value Added

  -Market Value Added

  - Shareholder Value Analysis (SVA)

g. Arriving at Fair Value

13. Mergers, Acquisitions and Corporate Restructuring

i. Conceptual framework

ii. Rationale

iii. Forms

iv. Mergers and Acquisitions

   a. Financial Framework

   b. Takeover Defensive Tactics

   c. Reverse Merger

v. Divestitures

   a. Partial Sell Off

   b. Demerger

   c. Equity Carve outs

vi. Ownership Restructuring

   a. Going Private

   b. Management / Leverage Buyouts

vii. Cross Border Mergers

14. Startup Finance

i. Introduction including Pitch Presentation

ii. Sources of Funding

iii. Startup India Initiative



Syllabus

Objective

(a) To acquire the ability to integrate and solve problems in practical scenarios on Indian Accounting Standards for deciding the appropriate accounting treatment and formulating suitable accounting policies

(b) To gain the prowess to recognize and apply disclosure requirements specified in Indian Accounting Standards while preparing and presenting the financial statements

(c) To develop the skill to prepare financial statements of group entities which includes subsidiaries, associates and joint arrangements based on Indian Accounting Standards

(d) To develop an understanding of the various forms of reporting (other than financial statements) and accounting for special transactions and apply such knowledge in problem solving.

Contents

1. Framework for preparation and presentation of financial statements in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)
2. Application of Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) with reference to General Purpose of Financial Statements

(i) Ind AS on First time adoption of Indian Accounting Standards

(ii) Ind AS on Presentation of Items in the Financial Statements

(iii) Ind AS on Measurement based on Accounting Policies

(iv) Ind AS on Income Statement

(v) Ind AS on Assets and Liabilities of the Financial Statements including Industry specific Ind AS

(vi) Ind AS on items impacting the Financial Statements

(vii) Ind AS on Disclosures in the Financial Statements 

(viii) Other Ind AS

3. Indian Accounting Standards on Group Accounting

(i) Business Combinations and Accounting for Corporate Restructuring (including demerger) (as per Ind AS)

(ii) Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements (as per Ind AS)

4. Accounting and Reporting of Financial Instruments (as per Ind AS)
5. Analysis of Financial Statements
6. Integrated Reporting
7. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting

Module 1: The financial reporting environment (25%)

1.1 Describe the regulatory environment for financial reporting in Australia and the reasons for accounting and reporting requirements
1.2 Discuss the main types of business entity and explain the reasons for selecting each structure
1.3 Identify different types of accounting regulation, including laws, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards
1.4 Explain how the requirements of users, together with social and environmental developments, impact the underlying principles and requirements of financial reporting and the desire to establish a single set of international accounting standards
1.5 Describe the role of the International Accounting Standards Board in developing a regulatory framework and explain how new policies and standards are established
1.6 Identify the purpose of a conceptual framework and the key characteristics in the GAAP and apply this knowledge to define and recognise the different elements of the financial statements
1.7 Describe and demonstrate the role of accounting standards and accounting policies in fairly presenting the financial performance and financial position of an entity

Module 2: The accounting theory (15%)

2.1 Compare historical cost accounting with other methods of valuation and explain the difference
2.2 Explain agency and contracting theories and how they relate to accounting policy choice (positive accounting theory)
2.3 Apply the recognition criteria for the elements of the financial statements according to the conceptual framework (normative theory)
2.6 Discuss the use of an accounting software package

Module 3: Financial statements (15%)

3.1 Prepare and present the statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income with appropriate disclosure in accordance with relevant accounting standards and policies
3.2 Prepare and present the statement of financial position with appropriate disclosure in accordance with relevant accounting standards and policies
3.3 Prepare and present the statement of cash flows in accordance with relevant accounting standards and policies
3.4 Demonstrate the ability to detect, investigate and correct discrepancies or particular items and events while matching the financial statements to supporting documentation

Module 4: Application of specific accounting standards (22%)
4.1 Calculate the carrying amounts of different classes of intangible assets and prepare the relevant journal entries
4.2 Interpret contracts to determine the amount and timing of revenue to be recognised in the financial statements and reconcile the differences between ledgers if necessary
4.3 Calculate current and deferred income tax and prepare the relevant journal entries to record the tax effect in the financial statements
4.4 Calculate and account for foreign currency transactions at transaction date and subsequent dates
4.5 Translate financial statements from a functional currency to a presentation currency

Module 5: Business combinations (13%)
5.1 Discuss the accounting issues for various forms of business combinations
5.2 Explain how goodwill is measured and disclosed at the date of acquisition and prepare the relevant journal entries
5.3 Explain how goodwill is measured and impaired subsequent to acquisition and prepare the relevant journal entries
5.4 Discuss the concept of control and calculate the non-controlling interest share of equity
5.5 Prepare consolidated statements of financial position, including the entries for goodwill and non-controlling interests
5.6 Prepare consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income, including the entries for non-controlling interests and intra-group transactions

Module 6: Analysis of financial statements (10%)
6.1 Calculate, analyse and interpret financial ratios and their interrelationship in the financial statements
6.2 Explain the limitations of financial statement analysis

Module 1: The nature and purpose of Management Accounting (7%)

1.1 Explain the role and objectives of management accounting
1.2 Describe the key differences between financial, cost and management accounting.
1.3 Describe how management accounting provides information and creates value.
1.4 Outline the core parts of management accounting systems and how they enable strategic management

Module 2: Cost classification and cost-volume-profit analysis (15%)

2.1 Describe different cost classifications and their characteristics
2.2 Apply relevant techniques to separate costs into their fixed and variable components
2.3 Apply the principles of cost-volume-profit analysis in organisations

Module 3: Types of product costing (23%)

3.1 Explain the concepts underpinning product costing and the need for absorption costing
3.2 Apply overhead allocation and apportionment techniques
3.3 Apply overhead absorption and marginal costing techniques
3.4 Apply the principles of activity-based costing to and contrast it to other costing techniques
3.5 Explain the differences between job and process costing techniques
3.6 Apply costing principles to job costing and process costing organisations

Module 4: Budgeting and variance analysis (20%)

4.1 Explain the nature of budgets and the reasons that organisations use budgets
4.2 Prepare an operations budget, cash budget and budgeted financial statements
4.3 Explain incremental and zero-based budgeting approaches
4.4 Identify and analyse the human behavioural challenges to the budgeting process in organisations
4.5 Explain how standard costing can be used to assist in cost control and efficient resource allocation
4.6 Calculate and analyse various variances and identify possible corrective actions

Module 5: Performance measurement (12%)

5.1 Explain the characteristics and purpose of performance measurement systems
5.2 Analyse the different types of financial performance measures and their limitations
5.3 Describe the key characteristics of the Balanced Scorecard and its advantages over traditional performance measurement systems
5.4 Outline the characteristics of reward systems and the circumstances in which they can be tied to performance measures

Module 6: Short-term and long-term decision making (18%)

6.1 Explain the steps in the decision-making process
6.2 Use relevant information and apply techniques to support short-term operating decisions
6.3 Apply tools and techniques to support capital expenditure decisions
6.4 Explain the impact of risk on capital expenditure decisions

Module 7: Inventory and pricing decisions (5%)

7.1 Evaluate the principles of just-in-time
7.2 Explain the importance of inventory control and apply inventory management techniques.
7.3 Establish and apply the appropriate approach for long-term pricing decisions


Module 1: Introduction to capital and money markets (7%)

1.1 Specify the function and structure of the financial markets and the role of the various market participants
1.2 Discuss regulation in the finance industry
1.3 Describe sources of international finance

Module 2: Introduction to financial theories (13%)

2.1 Interpret the future and present values of a series of single cash flows and of annuities
2.2 Demonstrate the relationship between systematic risk and expected return of individual securities and portfolios using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the security market line relationship
2.3 Distinguish between the weak form test, the semi strong form test and the strong form test of the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH)
2.4 Explain the implications of market efficiency for both investors and companies
2.5 In the context of capital markets distinguish between operating efficiency, allocative efficiency and pricing efficiency

Module 3: Introduction to risk identification, assessment and management markets (13%)

3.1 Define the term risk
3.2 Describe the different types of risk in international trade
3.3 Explain the different methods of risk assessment in international trade
3.4 Identify the key financial risks facing a business

Module 4: Sources and cost of finance (18%)

4.1 Identify the characteristics, terms and conditions of the alternative sources of short, medium and long term
finance
4.2 Evaluate the suitability of different methods of finance in a given scenario
4.3 Analyse the cost of various sources of finance
4.4 Explain the different sources of long term finance
4.5 Apply the concepts of financial mathematics to loans, and debt and equity securities with the use of effective interest rates
4.6 Calculate and interpret the weighted average cost of capital (WACC)

Module 5: Liquidity Management (11%)

5.1 Analyse the various sources of short term finance
5.2 Demonstrate the link between working capital management and corporate cash flow
5.3 Describe the operating cycle in working capital management to explain inventory management, debtor management and cash management
5.4 Prepare short term finance plans and strategies

Module 6: Capital structure and management (15%)

6.1 Describe the impact of the external financial markets
6.2 Explain the factors which influence the dividend policy decision

Module 7: Cash flow valuation and management (10%)

7.1 Explain the characteristics of major long-term investments where a 'capital budgeting' approach might be required
7.2 Apply different quantitative methods used in project evaluation
7.3 Compare and contrast the ROI, IRR, payback and NPV methods of investment appraisal
7.4 Explain why investment decisions should be analysed using the NPV method
7.5 Apply the NPV method to investment project scenarios
7.6 Select investment appraisal techniques which are appropriate to the objectives and circumstances of a given organisation taking account of working capital, inflation and tax
7.7 Undertake a sensitivity analysis of diverse projects using appropriate tools
7.8 Analyse capital rationing and draw appropriate conclusions
7.9 Calculate the weighted average cost of capital and apply it in capital budgeting

Module 8: Market and credit risk management (8%)

8.1 Describe the characteristics of derivatives and other hedging instruments
8.2 Apply different methods of managing currency risks
8.3 Select methods of managing interest rate exposure
8.4 Identify the advantages and disadvantages of different hedging strategies
8.5 Identify different methods of hedging which are appropriate to meeting an organisation's objectives

Module 9: Investment management (5%)

9.1 Demonstrate the relationship between systematic risk and expected return of individual securities and portfolios using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the security market line relationship
9.2 Distinguish between the weak form test, the semi strong form test and the strong form test of the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH)
9.3 Explain the implications of market efficiency for both investors and companies
9.4 In the context of capital markets distinguish between operating efficiency, allocative efficiency and pricing efficiency
9.5 Analyse measures of expected return and risk using the probability distribution approach
9.6 Analyse and interpret rates of return on financial investments
9.7 Analyse measures of expected return and risk for two-security portfolios
9.8 Analyse share price in both perfect and imperfect markets
9.9 Explain the impact of portfolio leveraging and short selling on the risk and expected return of two-security portfolios
9.10 Assess portfolio risk



Module 1: Understand the purpose of Accounting (15%)

1.1 Explain the role and purpose of accounting
1.2 Explain the meaning of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)
1.3 Apply key accounting concepts
1.4 Apply the accounting equation
1.5 Compare different types of business entities
1.6 Identify different types of financial statements and explain their purpose for business entities

Module 2: The Accounting System and Double Entry (35%)

2.1 Classify main sources of accounting data
2.2 Identify the main types of business transactions
2.3 Illustrate the use of journals and ledgers
2.4 Apply the double-entry accounting system to record common transactions
2.5 Prepare a trial balance
2.6 Discuss the use of an accounting software package

Module 3: Accrual Accounting (10%)

3.1 Explain how the matching principle applies to accruals and prepayments
3.2 Calculate and prepare journal entries required for accruals and prepayments, including ledger posting
3.3 Explain how revenue recognition affects account receivables and payables
3.4 Calculate and prepare journal entries required for irrecoverable debt, including ledger posting
3.5 Calculate and prepare journal entries required for settlement discounts, including ledger posting

Module 4: Accounting for Inventories (5%)
4.1 Define inventories
4.2 Apply FIFO and AVCO valuation methods to calculate the cost of inventory
4.3 Prepare journal entries for the adjustments for opening and closing inventory

Module 5: Accounting for Property, Plant and Equipment (10%)
5.1 Define property, plant and equipment and differentiate capital expenditure from revenue expenditure
5.2 Prepare journal entries for the purchase of property, plant and equipment
5.3 Prepare journal entries for the revaluation of property, plant and equipment
5.4 Calculate depreciation using the straight line method and diminishing value method
5.5 Calculate and prepare journal entries for property, plant and equipment disposal

Module 6: Internal Control and reconciliations (15%)
6.1 Discuss the purpose of internal control procedures and outline the common methods
6.2 Explain the purpose of control accounts for receivables and payables
6.3 Prepare journal entries in control accounts for receivables and payables
6.4 Perform control account reconciliations for receivables and payables
6.5 Explain the need for a record of petty cash transactions and a separate petty cash book
6.6 Illustrate how an imprest system for petty cash operates
6.7 Explain the purpose of a bank reconciliation
6.8 Prepare a bank reconciliation

Module 7: Prepare and present financial statements (10%)
7.1 Prepare and present the statement of financial position: Assets
7.2 Prepare and present the statement of financial position: Liabilities
7.3 Prepare and present the statement of financial position: Equity
7.4 Prepare and present the statement of profit and loss or comprehensive income: Revenues
7.5 Prepare and present the statement of profit and loss or comprehensive income: Expenses

This course equips the participant to understand the concepts and techniques relating to Technical Analysis of price and volume of securities traded in stock exchanges based on real data with the help of MS Excel and VBA. At the end of the course the participant will have the confidence and skills required to analyse the price movements and to make informed decisions as a prospective analyst or investor.

This program consists of the following modules based on live data.

1. Downloading of Data from the Website of the Stock Exchange
2. Collating the Data
3. Cleaning  the Data
4. Arranging the Data
4. Segmenting the Data
5. Computing the Statistics
6. Preparation of Charts
7. Analysis and Presentation of Data and the Analysis
Application of MS Excel and VBA all throughout the Modules


Syllabus Areas

Area I — Conceptual Framework, Standard-Setting and Financial Reporting (25–35%)
Area II — Select Financial Statement Accounts (30–40%)
Area III — Select Transactions (20–30%)
Area IV — State and Local Governments (5-15%)
Skill allocationWeight 
Evaluation 
Analysis25–35%
Application50–60%
Remembering and Understanding 10–20%

    

Detailed Syllabus Content 

Area I — Conceptual Framework, Standard-Setting and Financial Reporting (25–35%)

A. Conceptual framework and standard-setting for business and nonbusiness entities
Content group / topicRemembering and UnderstandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
1. Conceptual frameworkRecall the purpose and characteristics in the conceptual framework for business and nonbusiness entities.
2. Standard setting processRecall the due process steps followed by the FASB to establish financial accounting and reporting standards.

B. General-purpose financial statements: for-profit business entities

Content group / topicRemembering and UnderstandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
1. Balance sheet / statement of financial position
Prepare a classified balance sheet from a trial balance and supporting documentation
   √  Adjust the balance sheet to correct identified errors
    √ Detect, investigate and correct discrepancies while agreeing the balance sheet amounts to supporting documentation.
    √ Calculate fluctuations and ratios and interpret the results while reviewing comparative balance sheets.
2. Income statement/ statement of profit or loss
Prepare a multiple-step income statement from a trial balance and supporting documentation
   √  Prepare a single-step income statement from a trial balance and supporting documentation.
   √  Adjust the income statement to correct identified errors
    √ Detect, investigate and correct discrepancies while agreeing the income statement amounts to supporting documentation.
    √ Calculate fluctuations and ratios and interpret the results while reviewing comparative income statements.
3. Statement of comprehensive income
Prepare a statement of comprehensive income from a trial balance and supporting documentation
   √   Calculate reclassification adjustments for items of other comprehensive income.
   √   Adjust the statement of comprehensive income to correct identified errors.
    √  Detect, investigate and correct discrepancies while agreeing the statement of comprehensive income amounts to supporting documentation.
4. Statement of changes in equity
Prepare a statement of changes in equity from a trial balance and supporting documentation
   √   Adjust the statement of changes in equity to correct identified errors.
    √  Detect, investigate and correct discrepancies while agreeing the statement of changes in equity amounts to supporting documentation.
5. Statement of cash flows
Prepare a statement of cash flows using the direct method and required disclosures from supporting documentation.
   √   Prepare a statement of cash flows using the indirect method and required disclosures from supporting documentation
   √   Adjust a statement of cash flows to correct identified errors.
    √  Detect, investigate and correct discrepancies while agreeing the statement of cash flows amounts to supporting documentation.
    √  Derive the impact of transactions on the statement of cash flows.
6. Notes to financial statements
Adjust the notes to the financial statements to correct identified errors and omissions.
    √  Compare the notes to the financial statements and supporting documentation to identify inconsistencies and investigate those inconsistencies
7. Consolidated financial statements (including wholly owned subsidiaries and noncontrolling interests)

Recall basic consolidation concepts and terms (e.g. controlling interest, noncontrolling interest, primary beneficiary, variable interest entity).
   √   Prepare consolidated financial statements (includes adjustments, eliminations and/or noncontrolling interests) from supporting documentation.
   √   Adjust consolidated financial statements to correct identified errors.
    √  Detect, investigate and correct discrepancies identified while agreeing the consolidated financial statement amounts to supporting documentation.
8. Discontinued operationsPrepare the discontinued operations portion of the financial statements from a trial balance and supporting documentation.
9. Going concernRecall the requirements for disclosing uncertainties about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern

C. General-purpose financial statements: nongovernmental, not-for-profit entities
Content group / topicRemembering and UnderstandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative Task
1. Statement of financial positionRecall the purpose and objectives of the statement of financial position for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity.

Prepare a statement of financial position for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity from a trial balance and supporting documentation.

Adjust the statement of financial position for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity to correct identified errors
2. Statement of activitiesRecall the purpose and objectives of the statement of activities for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity.
Prepare a statement of activities for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity from a trial balance and supporting documentation.
   √   Adjust the statement of activities for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity to correct identified errors.
3. Statement of cash flowsRecall the purpose and objectives of the statement of cash flows for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity
Prepare a statement of cash flows and required disclosures using the direct method for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity
Prepare a statement of cash flows and required disclosures using the indirect method for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity.
Adjust the statement of cash flows for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity to correct identified errors.
4. Notes to financial statementsAdjust the notes to the financial statements to correct identified errors and omissions.

D. Public company reporting topics (U.S. SEC reporting requirements, earnings per share and segment reporting)
Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Recall the purpose of forms 10-Q, 10-K and 8-K that a U.S. registrant is required to file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Identify the significant components of Form 10-Q and Form 10-K filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
Prepare financial statement note disclosures for reportable segments.
Calculate basic earnings per share.
     Calculate diluted earnings per share

E. Financial statements of employee benefit plans

Content group / topicRemembering and UnderstandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Identify the required financial statements for a defined benefit pension plan and a defined contribution pension plan.
   √   Prepare a statement of changes in net assets available for benefits for a defined benefit pension plan and a defined contribution pension plan.
Prepare a statement of net assets available for benefits for a defined benefit pension plan and a defined contribution pension plan.

F. Special purpose frameworks
Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Recall appropriate financial statement titles to be used for the financial statements prepared under a special purpose framework.
Perform calculations to convert cash basis or modified cash basis financial statements to accrual basis financial statements.
Prepare financial statements using the cash basis of accounting
Prepare financial statements using a modified cash basis of accounting.
   √   Prepare financial statements using the income tax basis of accounting

Area II — Select Financial Statement Accounts (30-40%)

A. Cash and cash equivalents
Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Calculate cash and cash equivalents balances to be reported in the financial statements
Reconcile the cash balance per the bank statement to the general ledger
Investigate unreconciled cash balances to determine whether an adjustment to the general ledger is necessary

B. Trade receivables
Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Calculate trade receivables and allowances and prepare journal entries

Prepare any required journal entries to record the transfer of trade receivables (secured borrowings, factoring, assignment, pledging).

Prepare a rollforward of the trade receivables account balance using various sources of information.
    √  Reconcile and investigate differences between the subledger and general ledger for trade receivables to determine whether an adjustment is necessary.

C. Inventory

Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Calculate the carrying amount of inventory and prepare journal entries using various costing methods

Measure impairment losses on inventory

Prepare a rollforward of the inventory account balance using various sources of information.
    √  Reconcile and investigate differences between the subledger and general ledger for inventory to determine whether an adjustment is necessary.


D. Property, plant and equipment

Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Calculate the gross and net property, plant and equipment balances and prepare journal entries.

Calculate gains or losses on the disposal of long-lived assets to be recognized in the financial statements

Measure impairment losses on long-lived assets to be recognized in the financial statements
   √  Calculate the amounts necessary to prepare journal entries to record a nonmonetary exchange
   √  Determine whether an asset qualifies to be reported as held for sale in the financial statements.
   √   Adjust the carrying amount of assets held for sale and calculate the loss to be recognized in the financial statements.
    √  Prepare a rollforward of the property, plant and equipment account balance using various sources of information.
    √  Reconcile and investigate differences between the subledger and general ledger for property, plant and equipment to determine whether an adjustment is necessary.

E. Investments

Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
1. Financial Assets at fair value
Identify investments that are eligible or required to be reported at fair value in the financial statements.

Calculate the carrying amount of investments measured at fair value and prepare journal entries (excluding impairment).

Calculate gains and losses to be recognized in net income or other comprehensive income for investments measured at fair value and prepare journal entries.
   √  Calculate investment income to be recognized in net income for investments measured at fair value and prepare journal entries.
   √  Measure impairment losses to be recognized on applicable investments reported at fair value in the financial statements.
2. Financial assets at amortized cost √   Identify investments that are eligible to be reported at amortized cost in the financial statements
   √  Calculate the carrying amount of investments measured at amortized cost and prepare journal entries (excluding impairment).
   √  Measure impairment losses to be recognized on investments reported at amortized cost in the financial statements.
3. Equity method investments √    Identify when the equity method of accounting can be applied to an investment
   √   Calculate the carrying amount of equity method investments and prepare journal entries (excluding impairment).
   √   Measure impairment losses to be recognized in the financial statements on equity method investments.


F. Intangible assets - Goodwill and other

Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task


Identify the criteria for recognizing intangible assets in the statement of financial position and classify intangible assets as either finite-lived or indefinite-lived.


Identify impairment indicators for goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets

Calculate the carrying amount of finite-lived intangible assets reported in the financial statements (initial measurement, amortization and impairment) and prepare journal entries
   √  Calculate the carrying amount of goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets reported in the financial statements (includes initial measurement and impairment) and prepare journal entries.

G. Payables and accrued liabilities
Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task



Calculate the carrying amount of payables and accrued liabilities and prepare journal entries.



Identify and calculate liabilities arising from exit or disposal activities and determine the timing of recognition in the financial statements

Calculate the liabilities and assets resulting from asset retirement obligations and prepare journal entries.
    √ Reconcile and investigate differences between the subledger and general ledger for accounts payable and accrued liabilities to determine whether an adjustment is necessary. (includes initial measurement and impairment) and prepare journal entries.

H. Long term debt (financial liabilities)
Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
1. Notes and bonds payable

Classify a change to a debt instrument as either a modification of terms or an extinguishment of debt.



Understand when a change to the terms of a debt instrument qualifies as a troubled debt restructuring


Classify a financial instrument as either debt or equity, based on its characteristics.
   √  Calculate the interest expense attributable to notes and bonds payable reported in the financial statements (including discounts, premiums or debt issuance costs).
   √   Calculate the carrying amount of notes and bonds payable and prepare journal entries.

I. Equity
Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task



Prepare journal entries to recognize equity transactions in the financial statements



Calculate net asset balances for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity and prepare journal entries.

J. Revenue recognition
Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task



Recall concepts of accounting for revenue



Determine the amount and timing of revenue to be recognized under a contract and prepare journal entries.
   √  Determine revenue to be recognized by a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity for contributed services received and prepare journal entries.
    √ Interpret agreements, contracts and/or other supporting documentation to determine the amount and timing of revenue to be recognized in the financial statements
    √  Reconcile and investigate differences between the sales subledger and the general ledger to determine whether an adjustment is necessary

K. Compensation and benefits
Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
1. Compensated absences  √Calculate the carrying amount of the liability for compensated absences and prepare journal entries.
2. Retirement benefits


Use actuarial outputs to calculate the costs and the funded status for a defined benefit pension plan or a defined benefit postretirement plan and prepare journal entries.
 3. Stock compensation (share-based payments) √   Recall concepts associated with share-based payment arrangements (grant date, vesting conditions, inputs to valuation techniques, valuation models).
    √  Calculate compensation costs to be recognized for a share-based payment arrangement classified as equity and prepare journal entries.
    √   Calculate compensation costs to be recognized for a share-based payment arrangement classified as a liability and prepare journal entries.

L. Income Taxes
Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task

 Recall the accounting treatment for uncertainty in income taxes




Recall the criteria for recognizing or adjusting a valuation allowance for a deferred tax asset in the financial statements..
   √  Calculate the income tax expense, current taxes payable/receivable and deferred tax liabilities/assets to be reported in the financial statements
    √  Prepare journal entries to record the tax provision in the financial statements

Area III — Select Transactions (20–30%)

A. Accounting changes and error corrections

Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Calculate a required adjustment to the financial statements due to an accounting change or error correction and determine whether it requires prospective or retrospective application.
Derive the impact to the financial statements and related note disclosures of an accounting change or an error correction.
 
B. Business Combinations

Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Prepare journal entries to record the identifiable net assets acquired in a business combination that results in the recognition of goodwil

Prepare journal entries to record the identifiable net assets acquired in a business combination that includes a noncontrolling interest.
     Prepare journal entries to record the identifiable net assets acquired in a business combination that results in the recognition of a bargain purchase gain.
    Adjust the financial statements to properly reflect changes in contingent consideration related to a business combination.
     Calculate the consideration transferred in a business combination
   √   Adjust the financial statements to properly reflect measurement period adjustments related to a business combination.

C. Contingencies and commitments

Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task

Recall the recognition and disclosure criteria used to identify commitments and contingencies.

Calculate amounts of contingencies and prepare journal entries.
  
 √ Review supporting documentation to determine whether a commitment or contingency requires recognition or disclosure in the financial statements.


D. Derivatives and hedge accounting (eg: swaps, options and forwards)

Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task

Identify the characteristics of a freestanding and/or embedded derivative financial instrument to be recognized in the financial statements.


Identify the criteria necessary to qualify for hedge accounting
  
  Prepare journal entries for hedging transactions.
     Prepare journal entries for derivative financial instruments (swaps, options and forwards)

E. Foreign currency transactions and translation

Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task

Recall the basic functional currency concepts including the indicators to be considered when determining an entity's functional currency



Calculate transaction gains or losses recognized from monetary transactions denominated in a foreign currency.
  
  Adjust an entity's financial statements (local currency to functional currency or functional currency to reporting currency) and recognize the effect on equity through net income or other comprehensive income.

F. Leases

Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task

Recall the appropriate accounting treatment for residual value guarantees, purchase options and variable lease payments included in leasing arrangements.



Identify the criteria for classifying a lease arrangement.
  
  Calculate the carrying amount of lease-related assets and liabilities and prepare journal entries that a lessee should record.
      Calculate the carrying amount of lease-related assets and prepare journal entries that a lessor should record
      Calculate the lease costs that a lessee should recognize in the income statement
      Prepare journal entries that the seller/lessee should record for a sale-leaseback transaction.
      Calculate the amount of lease income that a lessor should recognize in the income statement.
      Interpret agreements, contracts and/or other supporting documentation to determine the appropriate accounting treatment of a leasing arrangement and prepare the journal entries that the lessee should record.

G. Nonreciprocal transfers

Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Recall the recognition requirements associated with conditional and unconditional promises to give (pledges) for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity 
√ Identify transfers to a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity acting as an agent or intermediary that are not recognized as contributions in the statement of activities
Calculate the carrying amount of donated assets (financial assets or long-lived assets) to be reported in the statement of financial position.
Calculate increases in net assets attributable to contributions for a nongovernmental, not-for-profit entity

H. Research and Development Costs

Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task

Identify research and development costs and classify the costs as an expense in the financial statements.



Calculate the research and development costs to be reported as an expense in the financial statements.

I. Software costs
Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Identify the criteria necessary to capitalize software costs (software for internal use or sale) in the financial statements.
Calculate capitalized software costs (software for internal use or sale) to be reported in the financial statements and the related amortization expense.

J. Subsequent events
Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Identify a subsequent event and recall its appropriate accounting treatment
Calculate required adjustments to financial statements and/or note disclosures based on identified subsequent events.
    √  Derive the impact to the financial statements and required note disclosures due to identified subsequent events.

K. Fair value measurements
Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task


Identify the valuation techniques used to measure fair value. 
Use the fair value hierarchy to determine the classification of a fair value measurement.
Use the fair value concepts (e.g. highest and best use, market participant assumptions, unit of account) to measure the fair value of assets and liabilities.

L. Differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP

Content group /topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
Identify accounting and reporting differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP.
Determine the impact of the differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP on the financial statements.

Area IV — State and Local Governments (5–15%)

A. State and local government concepts

Content group /topic
Remembering and understanding
Application
Analysis
Evaluation
Representative task
1.Conceptual framework 
Recall the purpose and characteristics of the conceptual framework for state and local governments.
2. Measurement focus and basis of accounting 
Recall the measurement focus and basis of accounting used by state and local governments for fund and government-wide financial reporting.
3. Purpose of funds
Determine the appropriate fund(s) that a state or local government should use to record its activities

B. Format and content of the financial section of the comprehensive annual financial report (CAFR)
Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
1. Government-wide financial statementsIdentify and recall basic concepts and principles associated with government-wide financial statements (e.g., required activities, financial statements and financial statement components).
Prepare the government-wide statement of net position for a state or local government from trial balances and supporting documentation.

Prepare the government-wide statement of activities for a state or local government from trial balances and supporting documentation.
 2. Governmental funds financial statements √    Identify and recall basic concepts and principles associated with governmental fund financial statements (e.g., required funds, financial statements and financial statement components).
   √   Prepare the statement of revenues, expenditures and changes in fund balances for the governmental funds of a state or local government from trial balances and supporting documentation.
   √   Prepare the balance sheet for the governmental funds of a state or local government from trial balances and supporting documentation.
 3. Proprietary funds financial statements √    Identify and recall basic concepts and principles associated with proprietary fund financial statements (e.g., required funds, financial statements and financial statement components).
   √   Prepare the statement of revenues, expenses and changes in fund net position for the proprietary funds of a state or local government from trial balances and supporting documentation.
   √   Prepare the statement of net position for the proprietary funds of a state or local government from trial balances and supporting documentation.
   √   Prepare the statement of cash flows for the proprietary funds of a state or local government
 4. Fiduciary funds financial statements    Identify and recall basic concepts and principles associated with fiduciary fund financial statements (e.g., required funds, financial statements and financial statement components).
     Prepare the statement of changes in fiduciary net position for the fiduciary funds of a state or local government from trial balances and supporting documentation.
     Prepare the statement of net position for the fiduciary funds of a state or local government from trial balances and supporting documentation.
 5. Notes to financial statements √    Recall the disclosure requirements for the notes to the basic financial statements of state and local governments.
 6. Management’s discussion and analysis √    Recall the objectives and components of management's discussion and analysis in the comprehensive annual financial report for state and local governments.
 7. Budgetary comparison reporting √    Recall the objectives and components of budgetary comparison reporting in the comprehensive annual financial report for state and local governments.
 8. Required supplementary information (RSI) other than management’s discussion and analysis √    Recall the objectives and components of required supplementary information other than management’s discussion and analysis in the comprehensive annual financial report for state and local governments.
 9. Financial reporting entity, including blended and discrete component units √    Recall the criteria for classifying an entity as a component unit of a state or local government and the financial statement presentation requirements (discrete or blended).

C. Deriving government-wide financial statements and reconciliation requirements

Content  group /topicRemembering and understandingApplication
Analysis
EvaluationRepresentative task
Prepare worksheets to convert the governmental fund financial statements to the governmental activities reported in the government-wide financial statements.
Prepare the schedule to reconcile the total fund balances and the net change in fund balances reported in the governmental fund financial statements to the net position and change in net position reported in the government-wide financial statements.

D. Typical items and specific types of transactions and events: measurement, valuation, calculation and presentation in governmental entity financial statements

Content group / topicRemembering and understandingApplicationAnalysisEvaluationRepresentative task
1. Net position and components thereofCalculate the net position balances (unrestricted, restricted and net investment in capital assets) for state and local governments and prepare journal entries.
2. Fund balances and components thereofCalculate the fund balances (assigned, unassigned, nonspendable, committed and restricted) for state and local governments and prepare journal entries.
3. Capital assets and infrastructure assetsIdentify capital assets reported in the government-wide financial statements of state and local governments.
   √   Calculate the net general capital assets balance for state and local governments and prepare journal entries (initial measurement and subsequent depreciation and amortization).
4. General and proprietary long-term liabilitiesIdentify general and proprietary long-term liabilities reported in the government-wide financial statements of state and local governments.
   √   Calculate the total indebtedness to be reported in the government-wide financial statements of a state or local government.
   √   Calculate the net general long-term debt balance for state and local governments and prepare journal entries (debt issuance, interest payments, issue premiums or issue discounts).
5. Interfund activity, including transfersPrepare eliminations of interfund activity in the government-wide financial statements of state and local governments.
     Prepare journal entries to recognize interfund activity within state and local governments.
6. Nonexchange revenue transactionsCalculate the amount of nonexchange revenue to be recognized by state and local governments using the modified accrual basis of accounting and prepare journal entries.
   √   Calculate the amount of nonexchange revenue to be recognized by state and local governments using the accrual basis of accounting and prepare journal entries.
7. Expenditures and expensesCalculate expenditures to be recognized under the modified accrual basis of accounting (paid from available fund financial resources) for state and local governments and prepare journal entries.
   √   Calculate expenses to be recognized under the accrual basis of accounting for state and local governments and prepare journal entries.
8. Special itemsIdentify transactions that require presentation as special items in government-wide financial statements for state and local governments.
9. Budgetary accounting and encumbrancesRecall and explain the types of budgets used by state and local governments.
   √   Prepare journal entries to record budgets (original and final) of state and local governments.
   √   Prepare journal entries to record encumbrances of state and local governments.
10. Other financing sources and usesCalculate the amount to be reported as other financing sources and other financing uses in the governmental funds financial statements.


A The nature, source and purpose of management information 

1. Accounting for management 

2. Sources of data 

3. Cost classification 

4. Presenting information 

B Data analysis and statistical techniques 

1. Sampling methods 

2. Analytical techniques in budgeting and forecasting 

3. Summarising and analysing data 

4. Spreadsheets 

C Cost accounting techniques. 

1. Accounting for material, labour and overheads 

2. Absorption and marginal costing 

3. Cost accounting methods 

4. Alternative cost accounting principles 

D Budgeting 

1. Nature and purpose of budgeting 

2. Budget preparation 

3. Flexible budgets 

4. Asset budgeting and investment appraisal 

5. Budgetary control and reporting 

6. Behavioural aspects of budgeting 

E Standard costing 

1 Standard costing system 

2. Variance calculations and analysis 

3. Reconciliation of budgeted and actual profit 

F Performance measurement 

1. Performance measurement - overview 

2 Performance measurement - application 

3 Cost reductions and value enhancement 

4. Monitoring performance and reporting



A The Context and purpose of financial reporting 

1. The scope and purpose of financial statements for external reporting 

2. Stakeholders’ needs 

3. The main elements of financial reports 

4. The regulatory framework 

5. Duties and responsibilities of those charged with governance 

B Accounting principles, concepts and qualitative characteristics 

1. The qualitative characteristics of financial information 

 2. Qualitative characteristics of useful financial information 

C The use of double-entry and accounting systems 

1. Double-entry book-keeping principles including the maintenance of accounting records 

2. General ledger accounts and journal entries 

D Recording transactions and events 

1. Sales and purchases 

2. Cash 

3. Inventories 

4. Tangible non-current assets 

5. Depreciation 

6. Intangible non-current assets and amortisation

7. Accruals expenses (accruals), prepaid expenses (prepayments), accrued income, and deferred income 

8. Receivables and payables 

9. Provisions and contingencies 

10. Capital structure and finance costs 

E Reconciliations 

1. Bank reconciliations 

2. Trade payables account reconciliations 

F Preparing a trial balance 

1. Trial balance 

2. Correction of errors 

3. Suspense accounts 

G Preparing financial statements 

1. Statement of financial position 

2. Statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income 

3. Disclosure notes 

4. Events after the reporting period 

5. Statement of cash flows (excluding partnerships 

H Preparing basic consolidated financial statements 

1. Subsidiaries 

2. Associates 

I Interpretation of financial statements 

1. Importance and purpose of analysis of financial statements 

2. Ratios 

3. Analysis of financial statements



A Financial management function 

1. The nature and purpose of financial management 

2. Financial objectives and relationship with corporate strategy 

3. Stakeholders and impact on corporate objectives 

4. Financial and other objectives in not-for profit organisations 

B Financial management environment 

1. The economic environment for business 

2. The nature and role of financial markets and institutions 

3. The nature and role of money markets 

C Working capital management 

1. The nature, elements and importance of working capital 

2. Management of inventories, accounts receivable, accounts payable and cash 

3. Determining working capital needs and funding strategies 

D Investment appraisal 

1. Investment appraisal techniques 

2. Allowing for inflation and taxation in DCF 

3. Adjusting for risk and uncertainty in investment appraisal 

4. Specific investment decisions (lease or buy, asset replacement, capital rationing) 

E Business finance 

1. Sources of, and raising, business finance 

2. Estimating the cost of capital 

3. Sources of finance and their relative costs 

4. Capital structure theories and practical considerations 

5. Finance for small- and medium-sized entities (SMEs) 

F Business valuations 

1. Nature and purpose of the valuation of business and financial assets 

2. Models for the valuation of shares 

3. The valuation of debt and other financial assets 

4. Efficient market hypothesis (EMH) and practical considerations in the valuation of shares 

G Risk management 

1. The nature and types of risk and approaches to risk management 

2. Causes of exchange rate differences and interest rate fluctuations 

3. Hedging techniques for foreign currency risk 

4. Hedging techniques for interest rate risk 

H Employability and technology skills 

1. Use computer technology to efficiently access and manipulate relevant information 

2. Work on relevant response options, using available functions and technology, as would be required in the workplace

3. Navigate windows and computer screens to create and amend responses to exam requirements, using the appropriate tools 

4. Present data and information effectively, using the appropriate tool


A The conceptual and regulatory framework for financial reporting

1. The need for a conceptual framework and the characteristics of useful information 

2. Recognition and measurement 

3. Regulatory framework 

4. The concepts and principles of groups and consolidated financial statements 

B Accounting for transactions in financial statements 

1. Tangible non-current assets 

2. Intangible assets 

3. Impairment of assets 

4. Inventories and agriculture 

5. Financial instruments 

6. Leasing 

7. Provisions and events after the reporting period 

8. Taxation 

9. Reporting financial performance 

10. Revenue 

11. Government grants 

12. Foreign currency transactions 

C Analysing and interpreting the financial statements of single entities and groups 

1. Limitations of financial statements 

2. Calculation and interpretation of accounting ratios and trends to address users’ and stakeholders’ needs 

3. Limitations of interpretation techniques 

4. Not-for-profit, and public sector entities 

D Preparation of financial statements 

1. Preparation of single entity financial statements 

2. Preparation of consolidated financial statements for a simple group 

E Employability and technology skills 

1. Use computer technology to efficiently access and manipulate relevant information. 

2. Work on relevant response options, using available functions and technology, as would be required in the workplace. 

3. Navigate windows and computer screens to create and amend responses to exam requirements, using the appropriate tools. 

4. Present data and information effectively, using the appropriate tools.



A Role of senior financial adviser in the multinational organisation 

1. The role and responsibility of senior financial executive/advisor 

2. Financial strategy formulation 

3. Corporate environmental, social, governance (ESG) and ethical issues 

4. Management of international trade and finance 

5. Strategic business and financial planning for multinational organisations 

6. Dividend policy in multinationals and transfer pricing 

B Advanced investment appraisal 

1. Discounted cash flow techniques 

 2. Application of option pricing theory in investment decisions 

3. Impact of financing on investment decisions and adjusted present values 

4. Valuation and the use of free cash flows 

5. International investment and financing decisions 

C Acquisitions and mergers 

1. Acquisitions and mergers versus other growth strategies 

2. Valuation for acquisitions and mergers 

3. Regulatory framework and processes 

4. Financing acquisitions and mergers 

D Corporate reconstruction and re-organisation 

1. Financial reconstruction 

2. Business re-organisation 

E Treasury and advanced risk management techniques 

1. The role of the treasury function in multinationals 

2. The use of financial derivatives to hedge against forex risk 

3. The use of financial derivatives to hedge against interest rate risk 

F Professional skills 

1. Communication 

2. Analysis and evaluation 

3. Scepticism 

4. Commercial acumen 

G Employability and technology skills 

1. Use computer technology to efficiently access and manipulate relevant information. 

2. Work on relevant response options, using available functions and technology, as would be required in the workplace. 

3. Navigate windows and computer screens to create and amend responses to exam requirements, using the appropriate tools. 

4. Present data and information effectively, using the appropriate tools.


Syllabus

A Explain managerial accounting and its primary responsibilities in organisations and classify costs used in managerial accounting. 

B Apply various cost management tools for analysis and decision making. 

C Prepare master and flexible budgets and apply standard costs to compute and interpret the cost variances. 

D Identify various types of responsibility centres and evaluate various types of short-term. 

E Analyse various types of strategic models in managerial accounting. 

F Discuss the application of balanced scorecard and performance measurements for strategic planning and control for sustainable business. 


Weightage
Introduction to Management Accounting 4 Hrs6% 
Cost Management and Cost Analysis10 Hrs17%
Budget Planning and Control9 Hrs15%
Responsibility Accounting and Business Decision Making 14 Hrs23%
Strategic Management10 Hrs17%
Performance Evaluation and Sustainability Issues13 Hrs22%

ASSUMED KNOWLEDGE 

1. Basic application of common costing techniques and associated terminology; 

2. Basic application of budgeting techniques; and 

3. The ability to identify variances and possible causes


Module Aim 

This course is designed to provide candidates with an overview of the presentation and disclosures of financial statements and an advanced knowledge of selected important accounting standards.

Syllabus Learning Outcomes 

Candidates will be able to: 

 Understand the framework for the preparation and presentation of financial statements and the disclosure issues. 

 Identify the basic and further issues in the preparation of consolidated financial statements.  Understand the basic concepts of deferred tax accounting, the disclosures and presentation issues. 

 Understand the concepts relating to foreign currency transactions and translation. 

 Account for financial instruments. 

 Understand emerging or other accounting issue

Module outline and detailed syllabus

1. Overview of Financial Statements 

 Framework for the preparation and presentation of financial statements 

 Objective of financial statements 

 Qualitative characteristics of financial statements 

 Recognition and measurement of the elements of financial statements 

 Concepts of capital and capital maintenance 

 Financial statements 

 Statement of Financial Position 

 Statement of Comprehensive Income

  Concept of comprehensive income 

 Income Statement 

 Statement of Cash Flows 

 Statement of Changes in Equity 

 Notes to accounts 

 Other disclosure issues in the financial statements 

 Changes in accounting policy and estimates and correction of errors 

 Events after the balance sheet date 

 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets 

 Operating segments 

 Related party disclosures 

 Earnings per share 

2. Consolidated Financial Statements 

 Basic issues in the preparation of consolidated balance sheet and consolidated income statement 

 The acquisition method  Goodwill on consolidation 

 Fair value adjustments  

 Non-controlling interests 

 Inter-company transactions and unrealised gains/losses 

 Further issues in the preparation of consolidated balance sheet and consolidated income statement 

 Investments in associates and equity accounting 

 Loss of control 

 Re-measurement of previously-held interests on acquisition date 

 Reverse take-overs 

 Complex group structure (e.g. father-son-grandson structure) 

 Interests in joint-ventures 

3. Accounting for Income Taxes 

 Basic concepts in deferred tax accounting 

 Rationale for deferred tax accounting 

 Concept of tax base and temporary differences 

 Taxable and deductible temporary differences 

 Recognition of deferred tax assets/liabilities 

 Accounting for temporary differences 

 Recognized assets and liabilities in separate financial statements 

 Revaluation of recognized assets and liabilities in separate financial statements 

 Initial recognition of assets and liabilities in separate financial statements 

 Fair value adjustments recognized under the acquisition method in consolidated financial statements 

 Goodwill 

 Investment in subsidiaries and associates 

 Accounting for deferred tax assets 

 Accounting for tax losses 

 Deductible temporary differences 

 Measurement issues 

 Measurement of deferred tax assets/liabilities 

 Measurement of tax expense 

 Presentation issues 

 Presentation of current tax payable 

 Presentation of deferred tax assets/liabilities 

 Presentation of tax expense 

 Disclosure requirements 

 Reconciliation of effective tax rate/amount to statutory tax rate/amount 

 Analysis of temporary differences 

 Other disclosures 

4. Foreign Currency Transaction and Translation 

 Foreign currency transactions and balances 

 Concepts relating to functional currency and presentation currency 

 Translation of foreign currency transactions and balances into an entity’s  functional currency

 Monetary items versus non-monetary items 

 Treatment of exchange gains/losses

 Foreign operations

 Re-measurement of foreign currency financial statements to the functional currency 

 Translation of financial statements prepared in an entity’s functional currency to a different presentation currency 

 Translation of foreign currency financial statements of subsidiaries and associates to the presentation currency of the parent 

 Translation gains and losses arising from translation of the separate financial statements of a subsidiary or an associate 

 Translation gains and losses arising from the translation of goodwill and fair value adjustments 

 Allocation of translation gains and losses to non-controlling interests 

5. Accounting for Financial Instruments

 Theoretical and practical considerations underlying the application of FRS 32, FRS 39 and FRS 107 

 Recognition and derecognition 

 Recognition of financial assets: primary instruments and derivative instruments, stand-alone and embedded derivatives 

 Recognition of financial liabilities 

 Derecognition of financial assets and liabilities 

 Measurement 

 Measurement of financial assets: “fair value through profit or loss”, “available-for-sale”, “held-to-maturity”, and “loans and receivables” 

 Measurement of financial liabilities 

 Presentation 

 Substance over form 

 Split accounting for compound instruments 

 Off-setting of financial assets and financial liabilities 

 Disclosure 

 Risk management policy 

 Fair values 

 Other disclosures 

 Hedge accounting 

 Fair value hedge 

 Cash flow hedge 

 Hedge of investment in foreign entity 

6. Emerging or Other Accounting Issues

This topic deals with conceptual and qualitative issues relating to: 

 IFRS 9 Financial Instruments 

 Compensation-related issues including accounting for share-based compensation  

 Issues addressed in exposure drafts (ED/FRS and ED/INT FRS) that have significant impact on future accounting practices 

 Contentious or evolving issues relating to Topics 1- 5 of this syllabus



THE MODULE AT A GLANCE 

A Explain the importance of ethical behaviour in the context of Financial Reporting and be able to apply ethical guidelines for professional accountants. 

B Describe and apply the appropriate measurement and recognition criteria for the elements of the financial statements, as required by the Singapore Financial Reporting Standards and related pronouncements and interpretations (e.g. Illustrative Examples, Guidance on Implementing, Interpretation of SFRS(I)) issued by the Accounting Standards Council. 

C Demonstrate the appropriate treatment and disclosure relating to derivatives, hedge accounting, financial instruments and fair value measurement. 

D Prepare consolidated financial statements with subsidiaries and associates under a business combination, including basic notes to the accounts. 

E Account for the effects of changes in foreign exchange rates for groups with foreign operations.

Specific exclusions              

The following specific SFRS(I) are specifically excluded.

Std NoStd Name
SFRS(I) 1-20Accounting for government grants and disclosure of government assistance
SFRS(I) 1-26Accounting and reporting by retirement benefit plans 
SFRS(I) 1-29Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies
SFRS(I) 1-33 Earnings per share
SFRS(I) 1-34Interim financial reporting
SFRS(I) 1-41Agriculture
SFRS(I) 4Insurance contracts
SFRS(I) 6Exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources
SFRS(I) 8 Operating segments

Learning Outcomes


Sl NoLearning Outcome

A - Financial Reporting Framework

A1
Compliance and Ethics in Financial Reporting
1Assess the relevance and importance of ethical and professional issues in complying with accounting standards.
2Appraise the potential ethical implications of professional and managerial decisions in the preparation of financial reports, in line with Ethics Pronouncement 100 (EP 100) the ISCA Code of Professional Conduct and Ethics
3Identify and recommend an appropriate course of action arising from ethical dilemmas in financial reporting.
4Assess the consequences of not upholding ethical principles in the preparation of financial reports.
A2
Emerging Trends and Current Issues
5Demonstrate awareness of both domestic and international current developments.

B

Recognition of the Elements of Financial Statements

B1
Impairment of Assets (SFRS (I) 1-36
6Evaluate the impairment test for all classes of assets under the relevant accounting standard appropriate to that class of asset.
7Calculate the impairment losses for all classes of assets under the relevant accounting standard appropriate to that class of asset
8Evaluate sensitivity of an impairment analysis to the exercise of professional judgment, use of assumptions and critical estimates
9Identify and explain the concept of a cash-generating unit.
10Explain the need for impairment testing to be done at the smallest cash-generating unit level.
11Allocate impairment losses for a cash-generating unit.
B2
Construction Contracts (under SFRS(I) 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers)
12Explain the concept of satisfying a performance obligation and the recognition of corresponding revenue and costs over time
13Identify the relevant revenue and costs to be recognised in a construction contract.
14Calculate the amount of revenue and costs to be recognised where the expected contract outcome is a profit, loss or unknown.
B3
Intangible assets (including Goodwill under SFRS(I) 1-38)
15Identify the recognition and measurement issues for Intangible Assets under SFRS(I) 1-38.
16Account for the impairment of Intangible Assets under SFRS(I) 1-36.
17Account for the amortization of Intangible Assets under SFRS(I) 1-38.
18Present and disclose Intangible Assets in the financial statements.
B4  Non-current assets held for sale and Discontinued Operations (SFRS(I) 5) 19
19Explain the difference between non-current assets held for sale or distribution to owners and discontinued operations.
20 Determine when to classify noncurrent assets as being held for sale or distribution to owners
21Apply the measurement criteria to non-current assets held for sale or distribution to owners and discontinued operations
22Present and disclose non-current assets held for sale or distribution to owners and discontinued operations.
B5
 Related Parties (SFRS(I) 1-24)
23Identify the parties considered to be related to an entity.
24Identify the implications of related party transactions and the need for disclosure.

FINANCIAL ASSETS AND FINANCIAL LIABILITIES

C1
Derivatives and Hedging (including SFRS(I) 7, 9, 13 and SFRS(I) 1-32, 1-39)
25Account for derivative financial instruments and simple embedded derivatives.
26Outline the principles of hedge accounting.
27Assess hedge accounting criteria including qualifying hedging instruments, qualifying hedged items and hedge effectiveness.
28Account for fair value hedges, cash flow hedges, hedges of investments in foreign operations.
29Assess and account for financial liabilities and equity under SFRS(I) 1-32.
30Evaluate and determine the impairment for financial assets under SFRS(I) 9
31Identify and disclose risks related to financial instruments within scope of SFRS(I) 7.
32Apply fair value measurement standard SFRS(I) 13.
C2 
Share-Based Payment Transactions and Arrangements (SFRS(I) 2)
33 Discuss the recognition criteria for share-based payment transactions and arrangements.
34 Apply the measurement criteria for share-based payment transactions and arrangements.
35Account for modifications, cancellations, and settlements of share-based payment transactions and arrangements.

CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (SFRS(I) 3, 10, 11, 12, and 1-28)

D1
 Introduction to Business Combinations
36Describe the role and purpose of consolidated financial statements.
37 Identify and outline the circumstances in which a group is required to prepare consolidated financial statements in relation to the concept of control as per SFRS(I) 10.
38 Identify and apply the criteria used to distinguish between a subsidiary and an associate
D2 
Consolidation of financial statements
39Apply the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations (SFRS(I) 3).
40 Explain and calculate the determination of goodwill.
41Apply the principles in determining the fair value of consideration transferred.
42Prepare acquisition date consolidation adjustments relating to the elimination of investment.
43Prepare consolidation adjustments to account for noncontrolling interests.
44 Prepare the Proof of balances (analytical check) for Noncontrolling Interests and Retained earnings.
45 Determine and apply appropriate consolidation procedures to be used in preparing group financial statements, including statements of cash flows.
 D3
  Post-Acquisition and IntraGroup Transactions
 46 Prepare post-acquisition consolidation adjustments on acquisition date fair value differentials.
 47 Prepare the necessary consolidation adjustments relating to deferred tax adjustments.
 48 Distinguish how pre-acquisition and post-acquisition reserves affect the consolidation process.
 49 Prepare consolidation adjusting entries for intragroup transactions and balances
 50 Apply the recognition and measurement criteria for identifiable acquired assets and liabilities and goodwill on business combinations, excluding situations where business combinations are achieved in stages.
  D4 
Associates and equity accounting
  51 Explain the concept of significant influence.
  52 Apply the equity method of accounting for associates.
  53 Prepare the equity accounting entries for an entity's investment in associate.
  54 Prepare a Proof of balances (analytical check) for investment in associate.
  55Outline and apply the key definitions and accounting methods, which relate to interests in joint arrangements.

 FOREIGN OPERATIONS

E1 
Foreign Operations
 56  Outline the concepts and foreign exchange rates used in the translation of foreign operations into the group’s presentation currency.
 57 Apply the translation of foreign operations into the group’s presentation currency
 58  Account for the consolidation of foreign operations and their disposal.

Module Objective 

The Financial Management module develops skills and techniques to assist in short-term and long-term financial planning. The long-term financial plan consists of decisions relating to investments (including acquisitions and mergers), finance and dividend decisions. Long-term decision often seek to maximise shareholder wealth, although the module briefly examines other possible scenarios. The short-term focuses on working capital and liquidity management. An underpinning concept throughout is the identification and management of risk. Upon successful completion of this module, Candidates will have gained practical knowledge through the application of various financial management tools and techniques.

Module Assessment 

The Foundation Programme is assessed by way of centralised examinations. Each module will be assessed by way of a 3-hour and 15 minutes restricted open-book written examination. There will be four questions, and each question may have multiple parts requiring structured responses. 

THE MODULE AT A GLANCE 

A Describe the nature and purpose of financial management, and how the objectives relate to an entity’s corporate strategy, both financially and non-financially, in different types of organisations. For each type of business, outline the economic environment faced by the business and consider the role of financial markets and institutions. 

B Discuss the importance of working capital management and describe the different management approaches relating to inventory, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and cash appropriate to the business entity, for working capital needs and funding strategies. 

C Describe the different sources of short and long-term finance that are appropriate and available to different business entities in different industries and size, including small-and medium-sized entities. Consider the implications of an existing or proposed finance structure on gearing, cost of capital (debt and equity), and the capital structure. 

D Describe Identify the purpose of investment appraisal and apply the non-discounted and discounted cash flow techniques, adjusting for the effects of risk and uncertainty. Effects of inflation and taxation are also considered under the discounted cash flow techniques, as appropriate. Consider the impact of the cost of capital in investment appraisal. Describe and apply the different business valuation models available to value an organisation with debt and/or equity. Outline the efficient market hypothesis and state how this affects the valuation of shares.

 E Identify the different types of risk that may be contained within a defined business environment and apply appropriate monitoring and mitigation strategies. 

WEIGHTAGE 


Introduction to Financial Management4Hrs7%
Cash and Working Capital Management12Hrs20%
Financing Decision – Capital Structure (including dividend decision)12Hrs20%
Investment Decision24Hrs40%
Risk Management8Hrs13% 


ASSUMED KNOWLEDGE 

It is assumed that Candidates have acquired a basic understanding of financial management issues from their prior tertiary studies, and have a good working knowledge of the Singapore economy, including its position in the region and internationally



Module Objective

The Principles of Financial Reporting module provides Candidates with knowledge of the Conceptual Framework and the Singapore Financial Reporting Standards (International) (SFRS(I)) to produce a complete set of financial statements for single entities, including basic notes to the accounts. Candidates will also be able to explain and advise on the application of the SFRS(I)s, demonstrating appropriate professional judgment. The Principles of Financial Reporting module provides foundation accounting knowledge for the Advanced Financial Reporting module and the Assurance module.

Module Assessment

The Foundation Programme is assessed by way of centralised examinations. Each module will be assessed by way of a 3-hour and 15 minutes restricted open-book written examination. There will be four questions, and each question may have multiple parts requiring structured responses.

Module Outline

A Explain the objectives of Financial Reporting, the standard setting process, as well as the need for and apply the components of the Conceptual Framework. 

B Describe and apply the appropriate measurement and recognition criteria for the elements of the financial statements (Assets and Liabilities), as required by the Singapore Financial Reporting Standards and related pronouncements and interpretations. 

C Describe and apply the appropriate measurement and recognition criteria for the elements of the financial statements (Revenue, Expenses, Equity and Other Comprehensive Income), as required by the Singapore Financial Reporting Standards and related pronouncements and interpretations. 

D Prepare a complete set of financial statements, including basic notes to the accounts, for a retail entity, a service entity, and a manufacturing entity.

E Demonstrate the appropriate presentation and disclosure of accounting policies, changes in estimates and errors, and events after the reporting date.

Weightage

Financial Reporting Framework4 Hrs7% 
Recognition of the Elements of Financial Statements32 Hrs53%
Preparation of Financial Statements for a Single Entity10 Hrs17%
Other Standards on Presentation and Disclosure of Financial Statements14 Hrs23%

ASSUMED KNOWLEDGE
It is assumed that Candidates have acquired basic knowledge base in relation to accounting from their prior tertiary studies

Module Objective

 The Accounting for Decision Making module develops cost accounting techniques for planning, control, and decision making. The key focus is on analysis of relevant information for decision making by management. Upon successful completion of this module, Candidates will have gained practical knowledge through the application of various strategic management accounting tools and techniques. 

Module Assessment 

The Foundation Programme is assessed by way of centralised examinations. Each module will be assessed by way of a 3-hour and 15 minutes restricted open-book written examination. There will be four questions, and each question may have multiple parts requiring structured responses. 

THE MODULE AT A GLANCE 

A Explain managerial accounting and its primary responsibilities in organisations and classify costs used in managerial accounting. 

B Apply various cost management tools for analysis and decision making. 

C Prepare master and flexible budgets and apply standard costs to compute and interpret the cost variances. 

D Identify various types of responsibility centres and evaluate various types of short-term. 

E Analyse various types of strategic models in managerial accounting. 

F Discuss the application of balanced scorecard and performance measurements for strategic planning and control for sustainable business. 

WEIGHTAGE 

Introduction to Management Accounting4 Hrs6%
Cost Management and Cost Analysis10 Hrs17% 
Budget Planning and Control9 Hrs15%
Responsibility Accounting and Business Decision Making14 Hrs23%
Strategic Management10 Hrs

Module Objective

 The Accounting for Decision Making module develops cost accounting techniques for planning, control, and decision making. The key focus is on analysis of relevant information for decision making by management. Upon successful completion of this module, Candidates will have gained practical knowledge through the application of various strategic management accounting tools and techniques. 

Module Assessment 

The Foundation Programme is assessed by way of centralised examinations. Each module will be assessed by way of a 3-hour and 15 minutes restricted open-book written examination. There will be four questions, and each question may have multiple parts requiring structured responses. 

THE MODULE AT A GLANCE 

A Explain managerial accounting and its primary responsibilities in organisations and classify costs used in managerial accounting. 

B Apply various cost management tools for analysis and decision making. 

C Prepare master and flexible budgets and apply standard costs to compute and interpret the cost variances. 

D Identify various types of responsibility centres and evaluate various types of short-term. 

E Analyse various types of strategic models in managerial accounting. 

F Discuss the application of balanced scorecard and performance measurements for strategic planning and control for sustainable business. 

WEIGHTAGE 

Introduction to Management Accounting4 Hrs6%
Cost Management and Cost Analysis10 Hrs17% 
Budget Planning and Control9 Hrs15%
Responsibility Accounting and Business Decision Making14 Hrs23%
Strategic Management10 Hrs17% 
Performance Evaluation and Sustainability Issues13 Hrs22%


ASSUMED KNOWLEDGE 

1. Basic application of common costing techniques and associated terminology; 

2. Basic application of budgeting techniques; and 

3. The ability to identify variances and possible causes.


Scope of the Session

This session takes up for discussion and illustration of MS Excel Macros and VBA Programming in MS Excel.

Focus Areas - MS Excel Macros

After this part of the session, the participants will get equipped with basic concepts, creation, calling, assigning and editing of excel macros besides understanding the environment required as well as the security settings that need to be kept in mind in the course of handling Excel macros. 

Focus Areas - VBA Programming in MS Excel

On completing this part, the participants will understand (a) Distinguishing functionality between Excel Macros and VBA Macros (b) Basic Environment Settings of VBA for MS Excel (c) Architecture of VBA (d) Excel Object Model (e) Building Blocks of VBA Programming and learn certain skills and acquire the ability to apply those skills in creating illustrative VBA programs and to take them forward. 


Scope of the Session

This session takes up for discussion and illustration of MS Excel Macros and VBA Programming in MS Excel.

Focus Areas - MS Excel Macros

After this part of the session, the participants will get equipped with basic concepts, creation, calling, assigning and editing of excel macros besides understanding the environment required as well as the security settings that need to be kept in mind in the course of handling Excel macros. 

Focus Areas - VBA Programming in MS Excel

On completing this part, the participants will understand (a) Distinguishing functionality between Excel Macros and VBA Macros (b) Basic Environment Settings of VBA for MS Excel (c) Architecture of VBA (d) Excel Object Model (e) Building Blocks of VBA Programming and learn certain skills and acquire the ability to apply those skills in creating illustrative VBA programs and to take them forward. 


Scope of the Session

This session takes up for discussion and illustration of MS Excel Macros and VBA Programming in MS Excel.

Focus Areas - MS Excel Macros

After this part of the session, the participants will get equipped with basic concepts, creation, calling, assigning and editing of excel macros besides understanding the environment required as well as the security settings that need to be kept in mind in the course of handling Excel macros. 

Focus Areas - VBA Programming in MS Excel

On completing this part, the participants will understand (a) Distinguishing functionality between Excel Macros and VBA Macros (b) Basic Environment Settings of VBA for MS Excel (c) Architecture of VBA (d) Excel Object Model (e) Building Blocks of VBA Programming and learn certain skills and acquire the ability to apply those skills in creating illustrative VBA programs and to take them forward. 


Scope of the Session

This session takes up for discussion and illustration of MS Excel Macros and VBA Programming in MS Excel.

Focus Areas - MS Excel Macros

After this part of the session, the participants will get equipped with basic concepts, creation, calling, assigning and editing of excel macros besides understanding the environment required as well as the security settings that need to be kept in mind in the course of handling Excel macros. 

Focus Areas - VBA Programming in MS Excel

On completing this part, the participants will understand (a) Distinguishing functionality between Excel Macros and VBA Macros (b) Basic Environment Settings of VBA for MS Excel (c) Architecture of VBA (d) Excel Object Model (e) Building Blocks of VBA Programming and learn certain skills and acquire the ability to apply those skills in creating illustrative VBA programs and to take them forward. 


Scope of the Session

This session takes up for discussion and illustration of MS Excel Macros and VBA Programming in MS Excel.

Focus Areas - MS Excel Macros

After this part of the session, the participants will get equipped with basic concepts, creation, calling, assigning and editing of excel macros besides understanding the environment required as well as the security settings that need to be kept in mind in the course of handling Excel macros. 

Focus Areas - VBA Programming in MS Excel

On completing this part, the participants will understand (a) Distinguishing functionality between Excel Macros and VBA Macros (b) Basic Environment Settings of VBA for MS Excel (c) Architecture of VBA (d) Excel Object Model (e) Building Blocks of VBA Programming and learn certain skills and acquire the ability to apply those skills in creating illustrative VBA programs and to take them forward. 


Scope of the Session

This session takes up for discussion and illustration of MS Excel Macros and VBA Programming in MS Excel.

Focus Areas - MS Excel Macros

After this part of the session, the participants will get equipped with basic concepts, creation, calling, assigning and editing of excel macros besides understanding the environment required as well as the security settings that need to be kept in mind in the course of handling Excel macros. 

Focus Areas - VBA Programming in MS Excel

On completing this part, the participants will understand (a) Distinguishing functionality between Excel Macros and VBA Macros (b) Basic Environment Settings of VBA for MS Excel (c) Architecture of VBA (d) Excel Object Model (e) Building Blocks of VBA Programming and learn certain skills and acquire the ability to apply those skills in creating illustrative VBA programs and to take them forward. 


Scope of the Session

This session takes up for discussion and illustration of MS Excel Macros and VBA Programming in MS Excel.

Focus Areas - MS Excel Macros

After this part of the session, the participants will get equipped with basic concepts, creation, calling, assigning and editing of excel macros besides understanding the environment required as well as the security settings that need to be kept in mind in the course of handling Excel macros. 

Focus Areas - VBA Programming in MS Excel

On completing this part, the participants will understand (a) Distinguishing functionality between Excel Macros and VBA Macros (b) Basic Environment Settings of VBA for MS Excel (c) Architecture of VBA (d) Excel Object Model (e) Building Blocks of VBA Programming and learn certain skills and acquire the ability to apply those skills in creating illustrative VBA programs and to take them forward. 


Scope of the Session

This session takes up for discussion and illustration of MS Excel Macros and VBA Programming in MS Excel.

Focus Areas - MS Excel Macros

After this part of the session, the participants will get equipped with basic concepts, creation, calling, assigning and editing of excel macros besides understanding the environment required as well as the security settings that need to be kept in mind in the course of handling Excel macros. 

Focus Areas - VBA Programming in MS Excel

On completing this part, the participants will understand (a) Distinguishing functionality between Excel Macros and VBA Macros (b) Basic Environment Settings of VBA for MS Excel (c) Architecture of VBA (d) Excel Object Model (e) Building Blocks of VBA Programming and learn certain skills and acquire the ability to apply those skills in creating illustrative VBA programs and to take them forward. 


Scope of the Session

This session takes up for discussion and illustration of MS Excel Macros and VBA Programming in MS Excel.

Focus Areas - MS Excel Macros

After this part of the session, the participants will get equipped with basic concepts, creation, calling, assigning and editing of excel macros besides understanding the environment required as well as the security settings that need to be kept in mind in the course of handling Excel macros. 

Focus Areas - VBA Programming in MS Excel

On completing this part, the participants will understand (a) Distinguishing functionality between Excel Macros and VBA Macros (b) Basic Environment Settings of VBA for MS Excel (c) Architecture of VBA (d) Excel Object Model (e) Building Blocks of VBA Programming and learn certain skills and acquire the ability to apply those skills in creating illustrative VBA programs and to take them forward. 


This is a stock-taking quiz to objectively measure the learning the participants have benefited from the Courses and the Hands on Session.

Scope

This course relates to the concepts, application and implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards by entities around the globe.

Our discussion, illustration and analysis revolves around  the basic themes of any financial reporting standard, namely;
Recognition
Measurement
De-Recognition
Presentation and
Disclosure
of Financial Elements, namely Asset, Income, Liabilities and Expense

Course Syllabus

Unit 1: Introduction to business management (20 hrs)

1.1 What is a business?

1.2 Types of business entities 

1.3 Business objectives 

1.4 Stakeholders 

1.5 Growth and evolution 

1.6 Multinational companies (MNCs)

Unit 2: Human resource management (20 hrs)

2.1 Introduction to human resource management

 2.2 Organizational structure 

2.3 Leadership and management 

2.4 Motivation and demotivation 

2.5 Organizational (corporate) culture (HL only) 

2.6 Communication 

2.7 Industrial/employee relations (HL only)

Unit 3: Finance and accounts (30 hrs)

3.1 Introduction to finance 

3.2 Sources of finance 

3.3 Costs and revenues 

3.4 Final accounts 

3.5 Profitability and liquidity ratio analysis 

3.6 Debt/equity ratio analysis (HL only) 

3.7 Cash flow 

3.8. Investment appraisal 

3.9 Budgets (HL only) 30 

Unit 4: Marketing (30 hrs)

4.1 Introduction to marketing 

4.2 Marketing planning 

4.3 Sales forecasting (HL only) 

4.4 Market research 

4.5 The seven Ps of the marketing mix 

4.6 International marketing (HL only)

Unit 5: Operations management (15 hrs)

5.1 Introduction to operations management 

5.2 Operations methods 

5.3 Lean production and quality management (HL only) 

5.4 Location 

5.5 Break-even analysis 

5.6 Production planning (HL only) 

5.7 Crisis management and contingency planning (HL only) 

5.8 Research and development (HL only) 

5.9 Management information systems (HL only)

This course provides resources for Cambridge International AS Level learning and practice material for Accounting Course.

This enables practice of application of concepts, knowledge and understanding of the learning made in the context of International AS Level Accounting course.

This course provides resources for Cambridge International AS Level learning and practice material for Accounting Course.

Learning Objectives 

After completing this module, you would have learnt to:

1. Complete the Proforma of a Petty Cash Book

2. Explain the dual function of the petty cash book as a book of prime entry and as a ledger for petty cash.

3. Prepare a multi column petty cash book and record transactions there.

4. Post the transactions from petty Cash Book to Ledger accounts

5. Verify dual aspect of petty cash transactions recorded in petty cash book

6. Apply spreadsheet (such as MS Excel) in preparation of petty cash transactions voucher